4. Critical Accounting Estimates and Judgements in Applying Accounting Policies

The Group makes estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts recognised in the consolidated financial statements and the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year. Estimates and judgements are continually evaluated and are based on Management’s experience and other factors, including expectations of future events that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Management also makes certain judgements in the process of applying the accounting policies. Judgements that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the consolidated financial statements and estimates that can cause a significant adjustment to the carrying amount of assets and liabilities within the next financial year include:

Impairment losses on loans and advances. The Group regularly reviews its loan portfolios to assess impairment. In determining whether an impairment loss should be recorded in profit or loss, the Group makes judgements as to whether there is any observable data indicating that there is a measurable decrease in the estimated future cash flows from a portfolio of loans before the decrease is identified with an individual loan in that portfolio. This evidence may include observable data indicating that there has been an adverse change in the payment status of borrowers in a group, or national or local economic conditions that correlate with defaults on assets in the group. Management uses estimates based on historical loss experience for assets with credit risk characteristics and objective evidence of impairment similar to those in the portfolio when scheduling its future cash flows.

Also, the Group’s management accounting system in some cases does not allow collecting all necessary information on incurred losses for certain groups of loans. Management uses estimates and incurred loss models for groups of loans with similar credit risk profile. The methodology and assumptions used for estimating both the amount and timing of future cash flows are reviewed regularly to reduce any differences between loss estimates and actual loss experience.

Held-to-maturity financial assets. Management applies judgement in assessing whether financial assets can be categorised as held-to-maturity, in particular (a) its intention and ability to hold the assets to maturity and (b) whether the assets are quoted in an active market. If the Group fails to keep these investments to maturity other than in certain specific circumstances — for example, selling an insignificant amount or settling a position close to maturity — it will be required to reclassify the entire class as available-for-sale. The investments would therefore be measured at fair value rather than amortised cost. For the estimated fair value of investment securities held to maturity as at 31 December 2011 refer to Note 34.

An active market exists if quoted prices are readily and regularly available from an exchange, dealer, broker, industry group, pricing service or regulatory agency and those prices represent actual and regularly occurring market transactions on an arm’s length basis.

Tax legislation. Russian tax, currency and customs legislation is subject to varying interpretations. Refer to Note 32.

Deferred income tax asset recognition. The recognised deferred tax asset represents income taxes recoverable through future deductions from taxable profits and is recorded in the statement of financial position. Deferred income tax assets are recorded to the extent that realisation of the related tax benefit is probable. The future taxable profits and the amount of tax benefits that are probable in the future are based on management expectations that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances.

Fair value of financial instruments. Fair value is the amount at which a financial instrument could be exchanged in a current transaction between willing parties, other than in a forced sale or liquidation, and is best evidenced by an active quoted market price. The estimated fair values of financial instruments have been determined by the Group using available market information, where it exists, and appropriate valuation methodologies. However, judgement is necessarily required to interpret market data to determine the estimated fair value. The fair values of financial instruments that are not quoted in active markets are determined by using valuation techniques. To the extent practical, models use only observable data, however, certain areas require Management to make estimates. Changes in assumptions about these factors could affect reported fair values. The Russian Federation continues to display some characteristics of an emerging market and economic conditions continue to limit the volume of activity in the financial markets. Market quotations may be outdated or reflect distress sale transactions and therefore sometimes not represent fair values of financial instruments. Management has used all available market information in estimating the fair value of financial instruments.

Related party transactions. The Group’s principal shareholder is the Bank of Russia (refer to Note 1). Disclosures are made in these consolidated financial statements for transactions with state-controlled entities and government bodies. Currently the Government of the Russian Federation does not provide to the general public or entities under its ownership/control a complete list of the entities which are owned or controlled directly or indirectly by the State. Judgement is applied by the Management in determining the scope of operations with related parties to be disclosed in the consolidated financial statements. Refer to Notes 35 and 36.

Revaluation of office premises. The Group regularly reviews the value of its office premises for compliance with fair value and performs revaluation to ensure that the current carrying amount of office premises does not materially differ from its fair value. Office premises have been revalued to market value at 31 December 2011. The revaluation was performed based on the reports of independent appraisers, who hold a recognised and relevant professional qualification and who have recent experience in valuation of assets of similar location and category. The basis used for the appraisal was market value. Revalued premises are depreciated in accordance with their remaining useful life since 1 January 2012.

Impairment of available-for-sale equity investments. The Group determines that available-for-sale equity investments are impaired when there has been a significant or prolonged decline in the fair value of the investment below its cost. Determination of what is significant or prolonged requires judgement. In making this judgement, the Group evaluates among other factors, the volatility in share price. In addition, impairment may be appropriate when there is evidence of changes in technology or deterioration in the financial health of the investee, industry and sector performance, or operational or financing cash flows.

Changes in presentation and reclassifications. For an aggregate disclosure of mandatory reserves with central banks of foreign countries in which the Group operates, the presentation of the comparative figures has been adjusted to be consistent with the new presentation. The effect of changes on the consolidated statement of financial position as at 31 December 2010 is as follows:

In mln of Russian Roubles As previously reported Reclassification As reclassified
Assets      
Mandatory cash balances with central banks - 51,678 51,678
Other financial assets 116,582 (1,146) 115,436
Mandatory cash balances with the Bank of Russia 50,532 (50,532) -

The effect of corresponding reclassifications on the consolidated statement of cash flows for the year ended 31 December 2010 is as follows:

In mln of Russian Roubles As previously reported Reclassification As reclassified
Net increase in mandatory cash balances with
central banks
- (10,195) (10,195)
Net increase in other assets (76,191) 235 (75,956)
Net increase in mandatory cash balances with
the Bank of Russia
(9,960) 9,960 -

For a more detailed disclosure of loan participation notes issued under the MTNprogramme and trade finance deals, the presentation of the comparative figures has been adjusted to be consistent with the new presentation. The effect of changes on the consolidated statement of financial position as at 31 December 2010 is as follows:

In mln of Russian Roubles As previously reported Reclassification As reclassified
Liabilities      
Due to other banks 188,431 (53,763) 134,668
Debt securities in issue 119,426 153,273 272,699
Other borrowed funds 270,765 (99,510) 171,255

For a more detailed disclosure of interest expenses on loan participation notes and trade finance deals, the presentation of comparative figures have been adjusted to conform to the presentation of the current period amounts. The effect of reclassifications for the year ended 31 December 2010 is as follows:

In mln of Russian Roubles As previously reported Reclassification As reclassified
Interest expense      
Debt securities in issue (8,776) (4,568) (13,344)
Other borrowed funds (5,950) 4,310 (1,640)
Term placements of other banks (1,640) 258 (1,382)

The effect of corresponding reclassifications on the consolidated statement of cash flows for the year ended 31 December 2010 is as follows:

In mln of Russian Roubles As previously reported Reclassification As reclassified
Other borrowed funds received 178,190 (167,920) 10,270
Redemption of other borrowed
funds
(27,799) 1,590 (26,209)
Repayment of interest on other
borrowed funds
(3,918) 3,332 (586)
Funds received from loan participation
notes issued under the MTN programme
- 167,920 167,920
Redemption of loan participation notes
issued under the MTN programme
- (1,590) (1,590)
Repayment of interest on loan participation
notes issued under the MTN programme
- (3,332) (3,332)

The Group has changed disclosure of expenses directly attributable to deposit insurance according to the substance of such expenses. The presentation of the comparative figures has been adjusted to be consistent with the new presentation. The effect of changes on the consolidated income statement as at 31 December 2010 is as follows:

In mln of Russian Roubles As previously reported Reclassification As reclassified
Operating expenses      
State deposit insurance system membership fee 16,718 (16,718) -
Consolidated Income Statement      
Expenses directly attributable to deposit insurance - 16,718 16,718

    History

My Annual Report

Your page has been added successfully